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Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The manufacture of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry, insulation, plumbing, and roofing work. 

Lumber

 

Lumber is a collective term for harvested wood that has been manufactured into boards. This process is part of something called wood production. Lumber is predominantly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. Lumber is classified as hardwood or softwood.

 

Lumber is supplied either rough or finished. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping. It is available in many species, usually hardwoods, but it is also readily available in softwoods such as white pine and red pine because of their low cost. Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes, mostly for the construction industry, primarily softwood from coniferous species including pine, fir and spruce (collectively known as Spruce-pine-fir), cedar, and hemlock, but also some hardwood, for high-grade flooring.

Sands

 

Sand is loose particles of hard broken rock, it comprises of grains from disintegrated rock. The diameter of grains ranges between 0.06 and 2.0mm in size and varies in shades of brown and orange in colour. Sand provides bulk, strength, and other properties to construction materials like asphalt and concrete. It is also used as a decorative material in landscaping. Specific types of sand are used in the manufacture of glass and as a moulding material for metal casting. Other sand is used as an abrasive in sandblasting and to make sandpaper.

 

Types of Sand:

  • Pit Sand (Coarse sand)

  • River Sand

  • Crushed Stone Sand / Artificial Sand

 

Building Materials

Cement

 

Cement is a fine mineral powder manufactured with very precise processes. Mixed with water, this powder transforms into a paste that binds and hardens when submerged in water. 
 
The main types of cement produced by standard groups:

  • CEM I (Portland cement) and CEM II (Portland compound cement

  • CEM III (blast furnace slag cement) and CEM V (slag cement)

  • CEM IV (pozzolan cement)

  • Prompt natural cement: (sets and hardens quickly)

 
All of these varieties of cement comply with specific industry standards and norms.