When iron is smelted from its ore by commercial processes, it contains more carbon than is desirable. To become steel, it must be melted and reprocessed to reduce the carbon to the correct amount, at which point other elements can be added. This liquid is then continuously cast into long slabs or cast into ingots. Approximately 96% of steel is continuously cast, while only 4% is produced as ingots.
The ingots are then heated in a soaking pit and hot rolled into slabs, blooms, or billets. Slabs are hot or cold rolled into sheet metal or plates. Billets are hot or cold rolled into bars, rods, and wire. Blooms are hot or cold rolled into structural steel, such as I-beams and rails. In modern steel mills these processes often occur in one assembly line, with ore coming in and finished steel coming out. Sometimes after a steel's final rolling it is heat treated for strength, however this is relatively rare.
Structural steel is steel construction material, a profile, formed with a specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and mechanical properties. Structural steel shape, size, composition, strength, storage, etc., is regulated in most industrialized countries.
Structural steel members, such as I-beams, have high second moments of area, which allow them to be very stiff in respect to their cross-sectional area.
Reinforcement Steel (Rebar), or a deformed bar, is a common steel bar, and is commonly used in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures. It is usually formed from carbon steel, and is given ridges for better mechanical anchoring into the concrete. In Australia, it is colloquially known as reo.
· Standard Reinforcing Bar Markings
· Most common types for non-prestressed members:
- Hot-rolled deformed bars
- Welded wire fabric
· Areas, Weights, Dimensions
Veriety of Steel Products
Steel products can also be divided by their shapes and related applications:
Long/Tubular Products include bars and rods, rails, wires, angles, pipes, and shapes and sections. These products are commonly used in the automotive and construction sectors.
Flat Products include plates, sheets, coils and strips. These materials are mainly used in automotive parts, appliances, packaging, shipbuilding, and construction.
Other Products include valves, fittings, and flanges and are mainly used as piping materials.